A SHORT CHRONOLOGY OF
JERUSALEM AND THE TEMPLE MOUNT
JERUSALEM AND THE TEMPLE MOUNT
~2000 Abraham meets Melchizedek, King of Salem and Priest of "God most high" (El Elyon), Genesis-20, Hebrews ). Abraham journeys three days from Beersheba or Gerar to Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice in obedience to God's command. God provides a ram as a substitute. (Genesis 22, Hebrews 11:8-19). Mt. Moriah is the site of the Temple Mount.
1400 After setting up the Ark at Shiloh near Shechem, Joshua launches the conquest into Jerusalem (Joshua)
1000 The Jebusite stronghold in Jerusalem is captured by King David. The city of David is built south of the Temple Mount. David reigns thirty-three years in Jerusalem after a 7 year reign in Hebron (2 Samuel 5:1-15). The Ark of the Covenant is returned by David into Jerusalem and placed in the Tabernacle Moses built there. (2 Samuel 6:1-18, 1 Chronicles 15:1-16). David plans to build the First Temple but is not permitted because he is a man of war. He purchases Araunah's threshing floor and erects an altar of sacrifice on Mt. Moriah. This is the site of the First Temple.
950 Solomon with the help of Hiram of Tyre and 183, 600 workers builds the First Temple and royal palace. He uses local limestone, cedar from Lebanon and great amounts of gold and silver. (1 Kings 5:9, 2 Chronicles 2). Solomon also enlarges the city. (1 Kings 7:1-12). Building of temple takes seven years.
935 Civil War. The Kingdom is divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah). Ten Tribes are part of the Northern Kingdom while only two (Judah and Benjamin) belong to the southern.
910 Solomon's Temple is plundered by Shishak (Sheshonk) Pharaoh of Egypt. Much gold and silver are taken. (1 Kings 14:25-28, 2 Chronicles 12:1-11).
835 Joash repairs the Temple, establishes maintenance fund, and brings period of revival and reform to the southern kingdom. (2 Kings 12:5ff).
720 Ahaz king of Judah dismantles Solomon's bronze vessels and places private Syrian altar in the Temple (2 Kings 16:1-20, 2 Chronicles 29-31). He later stripped the gold to pay tribute to Sennacherib.
716 Hezekiah, king of Jerusalem, with help of God and the prophet Isaiah resists Assyrians attempt to capture Jerusalem. (2 Chronicles 32). Wells and springs stopped up.
640 King Josiah repairs the Temple and brings about national religious reforms (2 Chronicles 34-35). Last mention of the Ark of the Covenant.
606 The Babylonian Period. The approaching "times of the gentiles" is signalled by Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Judah. Jerusalem is taken and the first wave of Jews carried into captivity, Daniel among them. Jerusalem will soon be lose her national sovereignty as a self-governing entity from the time of the Babylonian captivity until the end of the great tribulation period. The Babylonian dominion of Israel is the head-of-gold period (Daniel 2:36-38; 2 Kings 24:1; 2 Chronicles 36:5-6; Daniel 1:1-2; Luke).
598 Jerusalem is plundered by Nebuchadnezzar for a second time.
597 King Jehoiachin is carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar and the second wave of Jews is taken into Babylon, Ezekiel among them (2 Kings 24:10-16; 2 Chronicles 36:10; Ezekiel 1:2).
587 Zedekiah rebels against Nebuchadnezzar. He is blinded and taken to Babylon where he dies. Zedekiah is the last king in the line of David to reign in Israel until the Messiah reigns during the millennium (Ezekiel 34:23-24; Jeremiah 23:5; 2 Kings 24:18-25:21; 2 Chronicles 36:13-21; Jeremiah 9:1-8).
586 9th of Av. Nebuchadnezzar burns the city, and destroys the Temple. He murders many of the inhabitants and carries off a great number into captivity. (2 Kings 24-25, 2 Chronicles 36). The destruction of Jerusalem is the starting date for the "Times of the Gentiles"--Yeshua said, "Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the gentiles until the times of the gentiles are fulfilled" (Luke). Messiah's return in glory will close this period of Israel's history.
573 Prophet Jeremiah predicts a seventy year captivity in Babylon. The prophet Ezekiel, a captive in Babylon, receives a vision from God giving great detail of a future Temple that is to be built.
553 Belshazzar desecrates the Temple vessels in Babylon. Handwriting on the wall seals his fate that night as Babylon is taken by the Medes and Persians. (Daniel 5)
539 Cyrus, having established himself in control of the Medo-Persian empire in 549 B.C., captures Babylon, and the second world empire to dominate the Jews during the times of the gentiles comes upon the world scene. This is the breast-and-arms-of-silver period (Daniel, 39; 6:1-3).
538 The edict of Cyrus opens the way for the Jews in Babylon to return to the land (Ezra 1:1-4).
536 The seventy years of captivity are over. Cyrus the Persian gives the decree as the prophet Isaiah had predicted 170 years earlier.
517 Through the leadership of Nehemiah and Zerubbabel, the Second Temple is completed despite fierce opposition and delays. An altar of sacrifice is built on the Temple Mount. Temple is completed after a fifteen year delay.
332 Flavius Josephus records that Alexander the Great's invading army is met by priests outside of Jerusalem. They convince him not to destroy Jerusalem by showing prophecy contained in Scripture concerning him. Alexander spares city and the Temple.
515 The second temple is dedicated in Jerusalem (Ezra 6:15-18).
539 Fall of Babylon to the Medes and Persians. 539-334 The Persian Period. The Jews are in the land but are under the control of the Persians (Josephus, Antiquities 111:7).
538 First return to build the Temple, (Ezra Chapter 1).
536 Feast of Tabernacles kept in Jerusalem, and foundation of temple laid, (Ezra 3). Then Temple building stopped for 16 years
515 Temple finally finished
458 Nehemiah goes to Jerusalem. Rebuilds the walls of the city in 52 days (Nehemiah), August/September
445 Decree of Artaxerxes Longimanus starts the 70 weeks of Daniel running (Daniel; Neh 2).
334-332 Alexander the Great
320 Jerusalem is captured by Ptolemy Soter.
314 The city is taken by Antiochus the Great.
301 Jerusalem is captured by Ptolemy Epiphanes.
170 Jerusalem is captured by Antiochus Epiphanes. Antiochus murders Jews and plunders Jerusalem. He offers a pig on the altar and carries off the Temple treasuries. Worship and sacrifice is halted.
166 Judas Maccabaeus leads a Jewish revolt that gains back Jerusalem. Temple is cleansed and sacrifices are restored. (1 Maccabees 4)
164 Jerusalem is besieged by Antiochus Eupator.
141 The Roman fortress is conquered by the Maccabees freeing the Temple from pagan supervision.
126 Jerusalem is besieged by Antiochus Soter.
65 Jerusalem is besieged by Aratus.
63 Jerusalem is captured by the Roman general Pompey. Pompey enters the holy of holies in the Temple and is disappointed to find it empty.
40 Jerusalem is captured by the Parthians.
38 Taken by Herod the Great a cruel ruler who was a ruthless murderer. It was he who ordered the slaughter of the innocents at Bethlehem. (Matt. 2). Herod ordered the Temple enlarged. A new Temple is rebuilt over the sight of Zerubbabel's Temple. Temple and courts rebuilt until A.D. 63. City and walls under construction for 46 years (John 2).
334-167 The Hellenistic Period. The Jews, in the land, are under the successive dominion of the Greeks, then the Ptolemies of Egypt, and then the Seleucids of Syria. This is the third great world empire to dominate the Jews during the times of the gentiles. It is the belly-and-thighs-of-brass era (Daniel. 39; Josephus, Antiquities 11.7-12.6; Daniel 11:2-20).
175-163 The reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes whom Daniel saw as a type of the coming Antichrist (Daniel 8:1-2; 11:21-35; Josephus, Antiquities 12.5-9; 1 Maccabees 1:16:16; 2 Mac. 4:7-9:28).
167-63 The Maccabean revolt and subsequent Hasmonean dynasty in Judea. A short time of Jewish independence. This is the little-help period of Daniel. (Josephus, Antiquities 12.6-14.4).
New Testament Events (6 B.C. to A.D. 60)
Luke 2: Jesus was circumcised and dedicated in the Temple.
Luke 2: Jesus at age twelve visits the temple. At Jesus' temptation, the Devil takes Him to the pinnacle of the Temple.
John Jesus cleanses the Temple.
Matthew 24 Jesus pronounces judgment on the Temple.
Acts Peter and John heal a lame man at the gate beautiful.
Acts Herod puts James to the sword.
29/30 The first Pentecost after the death and resurrection of Jesus sees the coming of the Holy Spirit to create the church by baptizing believers into the body of Christ (1 Corinthians). The age of the church runs its course within the times of the gentiles between Pentecost and the rapture. This is the great parenthesis. The age of the church is never seen in the Old Testament. The course of the church age is pictured in Matthew 13 and Revelation 2-3. The close of the church age is seen in 1 Timothy 4:1-3; 2 Timothy 3:1-5; ; and 2 Peter 2:1-3; 3:3-4.
29/30 The Messiah Prince is cut off on the cross, and the sixty-ninth week of Daniel's prophecy ends. The prophetic time clock stops for Israel and will not resume again until the tribulation (Daniel).
40 Roman Emperor Caligula orders an image of himself to be placed in the Holy of Holies. Order is not carried out and Caligula soon dies.
63-70 The Roman Period. This is the fourth great world empire to dominate the Jews in the times of the gentiles. It is the legs-of-iron-and-feet-of clay era of Daniel(Josephus, Antiquities 14.4-20.11).
63-70 The time of Israel's travail (Matthew 24:4-8) includes the great revolt against Rome, the coming of the people of the prince, and the fall of the second temple in 70 AD (Daniel; Matthew 24:2; Josephus, Wars ).
70 Roman General Titus lays siege to Jerusalem destroying inhabitants, city, and Temple. The Temple is set afire.
132-135 The Jewish revolt of Bar Kokba against Rome.
135-1948 The second exile of the Jews (the diaspora).
135 The city of Jerusalem is sacked by the Emperor Hadrian.
395-636 Byzantine rule in Palestine.
614 Jerusalem is taken by the Persians.
629 Jerusalem captured by Heraclius.
636 Beginning of Arab rule in Palestine.
637 Jerusalem captured by the Saracens under Omar ibn al-Khatab.
691 The Dome of the Rock is completed on the temple mount where the Jewish temple previously stood. Until this day it dominates the only spot on earth where sacrifices can be offered according to the Torah.
1076 Atsiz takes Jerusalem from the Caliph al-Mostanther Billah.
1095 al-Afdhal ibn Bedr captures the city for Egypt after a 40 day siege.
1099 The Crusaders take Jerusalem. Christians rule in Palestine intermittently from 1099 to 1244.
1099 The Crusaders, under Godfrey de Bouillon, capture Jerusalem.
1187 Jerusalem captured by Salah-ed-Din the great Moslem conqueror.
1244 Sacked by the Mongol Hordes.
1247 Jerusalem captured by the Carizmians.
1517 Ottoman Turks under Saladin conquer Palestine. The present walls that surround the old city of Jerusalem are built.
1517 Selim I takes the city bringing it into the Ottoman Empire.
1822 Jerusalem taken by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.
1897 The first Zionist Congress meets in Basel.
1917 Jerusalem captured by General Allenby of Britain. He humbly walks into the city of Jerusalem.
1948 War between newly established Israel against Jordan and Egypt in Jerusalem after which part of the city remains under Israeli rule and part under Jordan.
Other Events A.D.
1897-1948 This is the great era of Zionism's aliyahs in which many Jews return to the land-but in unbelief. This is as predicted in Ezekiel's vision of the dry bones (Ezekiel 37).
1917 The British capture Palestine from the Turks in World War I. Death of the last Czar in Russia and last Kaiser in Germany. End of one form of old Roman Empire, (Revelation).
1922-1948 The British rule Palestine under a mandate from the League of Nations.
11/29/47 The United Nations General Assembly adopts partition plan for Palestine, providing for the establishment of a Jewish state.
5/24/48 The new state of Israel is proclaimed. Open immigration now permits vast numbers of Jews to return to the Land. The second exile ends (Ezekiel 11:14-17).
June, 1967 The Six-Day War. Jerusalem is liberated from Jordanian control and for the first time in nearly two thousand years the Jews are in complete control of Jerusalem. Control of the Golan Heights, Gaza Strip and Judea/Samaria (West Bank) by Israel.
6-24 Oct. 1973 The Yom Kippur War. U.S. and Russia send massive air lifts to their allies.
1992 Aliyah of at least 500,000 Jews from Russia. 16,000 Falasha Jews airlifted to Israel from Ethiopia.
Other Recent Events
The following is a more detailed chronology since the Old City of Jerusalem was regained by the Jews in 1967.
July 15 The President of the Moslem Court of Appeals turns down a request by an American Masonic Temple Order who asked permission to build a $100 Million "Solomon's" temple on the Temple Mount.
April 15 State Attorney Zvi Bar Niv responding to an order against the Police Minister Shlomo Hillel, explains that Jews should not be allowed to pray on the Temple Mount because "premature prayer" by Jews on the Temple Mount would raise grave security and international political problems. The plaintiff is the Faithful of the Temple Mount.
Sept. 9 High Court of Justice decides it has no jurisdiction in matters connected with the right and claims of different religious groups. Therefore it won't interfere with the position of the government prohibiting Jewish prayer on the Mount.
March 11 Altercation on Temple Mount occurs when students led by Gershon Salomon, a leader of the Faithful of the Temple Mount try to hold prayers on the site.
August 8 Despite police warnings, Rabbi Louis Rabinowitz and Knesset Member Binyamin Halevi pray on the Mount. They are removed.
October The Yom Kippur War. Israel is attacked by four nations. Israel gains territory in the Sinai and Golan Heights. Temple Mount is not affected.
Jan. 30 Magistrate Court Judge Ruth Or rules that Jews are permitted to pray on the Temple Mount. She acquits eight youths who were accused of disturbing public order by holding prayers on the site against police orders. Police Minister Shlomo Hillel says he will continue to bar prayers.
March 17 Magistrate Or's ruling is overturned by Jerusalem District Court. The Court rules that eight Betar youths who attempted to pray "demonstratively" on the Temple Mount were guilty of behavior "likely to cause a breach of the peace." The court also rules that Jews have an "unquestionable historical and legal right to pray on the Temple Mount, but that these rights could not be exercise until the authorities had adopted regulations fixing the time and place for such prayers. Such regulations were necessary, said the court, in order to maintain public order. The court notes that the Religious Affairs Ministry had "good reason" for not yet setting the rules.
June 28 Interior Minister Joseph Burg, given the police is a part of his purview, notes that those trying to pray on the Mount are "not exactly from the God-fearing sector." He states "the law will be kept. That is taken to mean that the Jews would continue to be barred from attempting to pray on the Temple Mount on the coming Tisha B'Av.
March 25 Rumors that followers of Meir Kahane and Yeshiva students would attempt Temple Mount prayers cause a general West Bank strike and bring 2,000 Arab youths with staves and rocks to the compound. They disperse after police intervention.
August 6 The High Court is asked to revoke ban on prayer on the Temple Mount, in light of clause three of the new Jerusalem Law, which guarantees freedom of access.
August 10 300 members of Gush Emunim try to force their way onto the Temple Mount and are dispersed by police.
August 28 Religious Affairs Ministry workers are found digging a tunnel under the Temple Mount. The work began secretly a month earlier when water began leaking from a cistern under the Temple Mount and had to be drained. Chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren closes the dig because of the issue's sensitivity.
April 11 Israeli soldier Alan Harry Goodman, a U.S. immigrant goes on a shooting rampage on the Temple Mount. He kills one and wounds three. The incident sets off a week of rioting in Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza and angry reaction internationally against Israel. At his trial Goodman told the court that by "liberating the spot holy to the Jews," he expected to become King of the Jews. A year after the incident Goodman is convicted and sentenced to life plus two terms of 20 years.
Various factions join togetherYoel Lerner, member of Meir Kahane's Kach Party, is arrested for planning to sabotage one of the mosques on the Temple Mount.
March 10 Police arrest more than forty people suspected of planning to penetrate the Temple Mount. Police had found four armed youths trying to break into the underground passage known as Solomon's Stables. Working on the basis of intelligence reports, the police surround the home of Rabbi Yisrael Ariel, former head of the Yamit Yeshiva. There, the others are arrested and a search of his apartment and others reveals several weapons and diagrams of the Temple Mount.
Oct. On Jerusalem Day, Temple Mount Faithful unfurls banner on Temple Mount. A riot breaks out leaving over twenty Palestinians dead. United Nations censures Israel for this act but says nothing as to those who started the riot. Press erroneously report that group was about to lay a foundation stone on the Temple Mount.
The rapture of The church. The dead in Christ are raised and the generation of living believers is translated. The judgment seat of Christ is set and rewards are given to believers for faithful service (1 Thessalonians 4:13-17; 1 Corinthians 15:51-54; 2 Corinthians 5:10-11).
Daniel's seventieth week begins as Israel enters the tribulation period (Daniel). This time period is seven years in duration. Israel's "time of Jacob's trouble" (Matthew 24:9-14). This is the first three and one-half years of the seven-year period comprising Daniel's seventieth week (Revelation 6:1-9:12).
World chaos occurs as a result of the rapture of the church which makes possible the rise of a new world leader, the Antichrist (2 Thess. 2, Revelation 6:1-16). The ancient Roman empire revives as the political Antichrist arises out of the midst of the ten-nation confederation. This is the feet-part-of-iron-and-part-of clay period of the times of the gentiles (Daniel, 41-42; ).
Apparent world peace for 3.5 years. Many come to Christ world-wide spiritual awakening during the last part of the tribulation period, the latter rain of the Spirit, (James 5:7-8; Joel; Zechariah 10:1; Hosea 6:3). During this time the 144,000 Jewish missionaries are saved and sealed (Revelation 7:1-8); they preach the gospel during the entire tribulation period (Matthew 24 14). Many others, both Jews and gentiles, are saved and make up the saints of God who are martyred by the Antichrist (Daniel , 25; Revelation 7:9-17).
A covenant is made between the Antichrist and Israel. The temple is rebuilt and the Levitical system of priesthood and offerings begins again (Daniel). The apostate Christian church flourishes during the first half of the tribulation period (Revelation l7:1-7).
Israel feels secure under the protection of the Antichrist's covenant until she is invaded at Midtribulation by Syrian and Russian armies. The Antichrist comes to Israel's defense. Russia is defeated and the Antichrist becomes a world ruler (Ezekiel 38-39).
At Midtribulation the Antichrist breaks the covenant made with Israel and the great tribulation period begins. (Daniel; Matthew 24:15-28; Revelation 11:1-18:24).
Antichrist is now manifest as the First Beast of Revelation 13. His image is set up in the third temple in Jerusalem and he demands worship as god (Matthew 24:15; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 13:1-10).
The second beast, the false prophet in Israel appears to aid the beast and cause the earth-dwellers to worship him as god (Revelation 13:11-18).
Two godly witnesses (probably Moses and Elijah, but perhaps Enoch and Elijah) appear on the temple mount and prophesy during the great tribulation period, until they are killed at the close of the period, after which they are resurrected and raptured. (Revelation 11:1-12).
Israel, faithful to her orthodox faith, is severely persecuted by the Antichrist during the great tribulation period (Jeremiah 30:57; Daniel 12:1; Zechariah 13:8; Matthew 24:21-22). Many in Israel flee and are protected by the nations (Matthew 24:15-20; Revelation 12:6,13-17).
The fall of commercial Babylon toward the close of the great tribulation (Revelation 18:1-24). The apostate church is destroyed (Revelation 17:1-6).
The kings of the Orient invade Israel and hostilities erupt between them and the forces of the Antichrist. The battle of Armageddon and the doom of the Antichrist (Daniel 11:44-45; Revelation 16:12-16; 2 Thessalonians 2:8; Revelation). One third of the Jewish people recognize Jesus as Messiah and are rescued, Zechariah 12-14, and two thirds will be cut off.
The second coming of Christ ends the times of the gentiles (Daniel; 7:9-13, 22-28; Revelation 19:11-16). Jesus returns to the Mount of Olives bringing the faithful remnant of Jews from Edom, Isaiah 63, and the church, Revelation 19:11ff, Zechariah 14.
Antichrist and the false prophet are cast into the lake of fire. (Revelation).
The gentile nations are judged on the basis of their treatment of God's covenant people Israel, during the times of the gentiles (Matthew 25:31-46).
Jesus rules the nations, "with a rod of iron" for 1000 years. Satan and his evil angels are bound and removed to the abyss, Revelation 20.
Jesus said, "Take heed that you are not led astray; for many will come in my name, saying, `I am he!' and, `The time is at hand!' Do not go after them. And when you hear of wars and tumults, do not be terrified; for this must first take place, but the end will not be at once." Then he said to them, "Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; there will be great earthquakes, and in various places famines and pestilences; and there will be terrors and great signs from heaven. But before all this they will lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, and you will be brought before kings and governors for my name's sake. This will be a time for you to bear testimony. Settle it therefore in your minds, not to meditate beforehand how to answer; for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. You will be delivered up even by parents and brothers and kinsmen and friends, and some of you they will put to death; you will be hated by all for my name's sake. But not a hair of your head will perish. By your endurance you will gain your lives.
But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it; for these are days of vengeance, to fulfill all that is written. Alas for those who are with child and for those who give suck in those days! For great distress shall be upon the earth and wrath upon this people; they will fall by the edge of the sword, and be led captive among all nations; and Jerusalem will be trodden down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. "And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and upon the earth distress of nations in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves, men fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world; for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. And then they will see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. Now when these things begin to take place, look up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near. (Luke 21:6-28)
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